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The Prophet صلّى اللَّهُ عليه وسلّم’s Farewell Sermon

 imagesProphet Muhammad (صلّى اللَّهُ عليه وسلّم) delivered his last sermon (Khutbah) on the 9th of Dhul Hijjah (12th and the last month of the Isalamic year), 10 years after Hijrah (migration from Makkah to Madeenah) in the Uranah Valley of mount Arafat. His words were quite clear and concise and were directed to the ENTIRE humanity.

After praising, and thanking Allaah سُبحانه وتعالى he صلّى اللَّهُ عليه وسلّم said:

“O People, lend me an attentive ear, for I know not whether after this year, I shall ever be amongst you again. Therefore listen to what I am saying to you very carefully and take these words to those who could not be present here today.

O People, just as you regard this month, this day, this city as Sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you. Remember that you will indeed meet your Lord, and that He will indeed reckon your deeds. Allaah has forbidden you to take usury (interest), therefore all interest obligation shall henceforth be waived. Your capital, however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer any inequity. Allaah has Judged that there shall be no interest and that all the interest due to Abbas ibn ‘Abd’al Muttalib (Prophet’s uncle) shall henceforth be waived…

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Treating Parents harshly is NOT a Solution – Shaikh Ahmad ibn Yahya an-Najmee

 white-flower-wallpaper-7Question: Some young people think that treating their parents with a degree of harshness gets rid of many evils; what is the ruling on this?

Answer: I say that this is a mistaken view; Allaah (subhanhu wa ta’ala) ordered His worshippers to treat their parents well,

“Say not to them a word of disrespect (uff), nor shout at or harass them.”

Harshness through words is a kind of harassment and shouting or even worse, and if the harshness occurs through actions it can even lead to hitting.

Whoever thinks that he can forbid his parents from doing evil by being harsh to them has imagined wrongly because Allaah (subhanahu wa ta’ala) said,

“But if they strive to make you join in worship with Me others of which you have no knowledge, then obey them not; but behave kindly towards them in this worldly life.”

Here Allaah didn’t command a person to be harsh to his parents. Also, harshness is not a way of stopping all people from doing evil.
People have different dispositions, and some are only spurred on further by harsh treatment.

It therefore becomes clear that harshness does not bring about any good; the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said,

“Gentleness does not touch anything except that it beautifies it, and harshness does not touch anything except that it spoils it.”

This person should then fear Allaah and address his parents gently, kindly and mercifully.

Doing so, he would be deemed obedient to Allaah, kind to his parents and disallowing evil to the best of his ability, and Allaah did not burden people except with what is in their ability.

I think that this type of person (who tries to disallow his parents’ evils by being harsh to them) is like none other than those who want to reject evil by revolting against the Muslim ruler and shedding blood.

This person’s attitude is wrong, because his harshness against his parents is a greater evil than the one he wants to criticize.

And Allaah is the One who grants success.

[Fat-h Al-Rabb Al-Wadud fi Al-Fatawa wa Al-Rasa`il wa Al-Rudud #612]
[Translated by Abu Abdillah (Abu Zaynab) Owais Al-Hashimi]

Types Of Actions That Will Be As Scattered Dust – Ibn Rajab Al-Hanbali

ibn-rajab-hanbaliThe First: One having deeds from which he hopes good but they end up scattered dust and are altered to evil deeds. Allaah سُبحانه وتعالى says,

وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَعْمَالُهُمْ كَسَرَابٍ بِقِيعَةٍ يَحْسَبُهُ الظَّمْآنُ مَاء حَتَّى إِذَا جَاءهُ لَمْ يَجِدْهُ شَيْئًا وَوَجَدَ اللَّهَ عِندَهُ فَوَفَّاهُ حِسَابَهُ وَاللَّهُ سَرِيعُ الْحِسَابِ

As for those who disbelieve, their deeds are as a mirage in a desert. The thirsty one thinks it to be water till he comes to it and finds it naught, and finds, in the place thereof, Allaah Who will pay him his due; and Allaah is swift at reckoning.¹

(An-Nur 24:39)

وَقَدِمْنَا إِلَى مَا عَمِلُوا مِنْ عَمَلٍ فَجَعَلْنَاهُ هَبَاء مَّنثُورً

And We shall turn unto the work they did and make it scattered motes.²

Fudayl said concerning this verse,”And there will appear unto them from their Lord, that wherewith they never reckoned,” ‘They worked deeds thinking them to be good when in reality they were evil.’

The Second: Close to the above: a servant commits an evil deed to which he pays no regard, thinking it insignificant, and that sin will be the cause of his perdition as Allaah says,

“…you counted it a trifle but in the sight of Allaah it is very great.” ³

One of the Companions said, ‘You are doing deeds that are, in your eyes, more insignificant than a hair, whereas at the time of the Messenger of Allaah صلّى اللَّهُ عليه وسلّمwe would consider them to be destructive sins!.4

The Third: Worse than the previous case: one to whom the evil of his conduct seems pleasing. Allaah, Exalted is He says,

Say: Shall We inform you who will be the greatest losers by their works? Those whose efforts go astray in the life of the world, and yet they reckon that they do good work.5

Ibn Uyaynah said, ‘When death came to Muhammad ibn Al-Munkadir he became apprehensive and so the people summoned Abu Hazim and he came. Ibn al-Munkadir said to him,” Allaah says, And there will appear unto them, from their Lord, that wherewith they never reckoned, and I fear that things will become clear to me and confront me that Inever expected. ’Then both of them broke down in tears.’ Recorded by ibn Abi Hatim and ibn Abi Al-Dunya adds in his report, ’So his family said, ”We called you that you may console him but you have only increased his apprehension!” He then told them of what he had said.6

Fudayl ibn Iyad said, I have been informed that it was said to Sulayman al-Taymi, ”You! Who is there like you!” He said, ”Quiet! Do not say this! I do not know what will appear before me from Allaah, I have heard Allaah saying,” And there will appear unto them, from their Lord, that wherewith they never reckoned.”7

The Fourth: Sufyan ath-Thawri would say upon hearing this verse, ’Woe to the people of ostentation.’8This can be seen in the Hadith about the three who would be the first to be hurled into the Fire: the scholar, the one who gave charity, and the Mujahid.9

The Fifth: The one who has worked righteous deeds but has also wronged others and he thinks that his deeds will save him, so there confronts him that which he was not expecting. All of his deeds are apportioned amongst those who he wronged then some wrong still remains to be requited, and so their evil deeds are piled onto his and as a result he is hurled into the Fire. 10

The Sixth: His account could be scrutinized at which it will be asked of him to show how he was grateful for the blessings granted him. The least blessing would be balanced against his deeds and outweigh them with the remaining blessings yet to be weighed! This is why the Prophet صلّى اللَّهُ عليه وسلّم said, Whoever’s account is scrutinized will be punished, or will be destroyed. 11

The Seventh: He could have evil deeds that destroy some of his deeds or the deeds of his limbs, save Tawhid,  as a result of which he will enter the Fire. Ibn Majah records the hadith on the authority of Thawban that the Messenger of Allaah صلّى اللَّهُ عليه وسلّم said, ’There are people amongst my nation who will come with deeds like mountains and Allaah will render them as scattered dust.’ This hadith goes on to mention, ”They are people who have your skin, (they speak your language), 12 they spend part of the night in prayer as you do, but they are people who, when they are alone, violate the prohibitions of Allaah.” 13

Yaqub ibn Shaybah and ibn Abi al-Dunya record on the authority of Salim, the freed-slave of Abu Hudhayfah, that the Messenger of Allaah صلّى اللَّهُ عليه وسلّم said, “A group of people will be brought on the Day of Judgment with deeds like Mount Tihamah and Allaah will render their deeds to dust and they will be thrown face first in the Fire.” Salim said, ”I fear that I am one of them! He صلّى اللَّهُ عليه وسلّم said, ”They would fast, pray, and apportion some of the night for worship, but in secret, when an opportunity to do something forbidden presented itself, they would take it and as such Allaah will invalidate their deeds.” A person could have his deeds annulled because of showing off or arrogance and the likes yet not even be aware of it!


[Transcribed from: The Journey to Allaah, page 82-87 of Ibn Rajab Al-Hanbali رحمه الله]



1. An-Nur 24:39
2. Al-Furqan 25:23
3. An-Nur 24:15
4. Bukhari no.6492 on the authority of Anas
5. Al-Kahf 18:103-104
6.Ibn al-Jawzi,vol.2,p.167 no.185.
7.Dhahabi, Tadhkiratu’l-Huffaz,vol.1, p. 151
8.Qurtubi,vol.15, p. 265

9.Muslim no. 1905/4923 on the authority of Abu Hurayrah with the words, ’The first man (whose case) will be decided on the Day of Judgment, will be a man who died as a martyr. He shall be brought forth and Allaah will recount His blessings (which he had bestowed upon him) and he will acknowledge them. Then Allaah will ask, ’What did you do with them?” He will reply, ”I fought for Your sake until I died as a martyr.” Allaah will say, ’You lie. You fought so that you might be called a ‘brave warrior’ and you were called so. ’Then a command will be given and he will be dragged on his face and cast into Hell.

And a man who acquired knowledge and taught it and recited the Qur’an. He will be brought forth and Allaah will recount His blessings (which he had bestowed upon him) and he will acknowledge them. Then Allaah will ask, ”What did you do with them?” He will say, ”I acquired knowledge and disseminated it and recited the Qur’an so that it might be said, ’He is a Qari,and it was said. Then a command will be given and he will be dragged on his face and cast into Hell.

And a man who Allaah had made abundantly rich and had granted every kind of wealth. He will be brought forth and Allaah will recount His blessings (which He had bestowed upon him) and he will acknowledge them. Then Allaah will ask, ”What did you do with them?”He will say, ”I spent money in every cause in which You wished that it should be spent for Your sake.” Allaah will say, ”You lie. You did so that it might be said, ”He is generous,” and it was said. Then a command will be given and he will be dragged on his face and cast into Hell.”

10. Muslim no. 2581/6579 records on the authority of Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallaam) asked, ’Do you know the bankrupt person is? ’They said, ’A bankrupt man amongst us is one who has neither dirham with him nor wealth. ’He said, ’The bankrupt person of my nation would be he who comes on the Day of Resurrection with prayers and fasts and Zakat but he hurled abuses upon this person ,brought calumny against that person, unlawfully consumed the wealth of that person, shed the blood of that person, and beat that person. So his good deeds would be credited to the deeds of those people [by way of retaliation] and if his good deeds fall short to clear the account, their sins would be added to his and he would be thrown in the Fire.”

Muslim no.2582/6580 record on the authority of Abu Hurayrah that the Mesenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallaam) said, ’All rights will be restored to their owners on the Day of Judgment.Even a hornless goat that is butted by a ram will have justice.”

11. Bukhari no. 6537 and Muslim no. 2876/7227, 7228 on the authority of Aishah. The wording of Bukhari has Aishah then asking, ’Does not Allaah say, ”Then who is given his Record in his right hand, soon will his account be taken by an easy reckoning,’ [al-Ishiqaq 84:7-8], He replied, ”That is not the scrutiny that is a presentation, whoever’s account is scrutinized will be punished.”
Bukhari no.6536 and Muslim no.2876/7225 on the authority of Aishah.This wording mentioned above is also recorded by Tirmidhi no.3338 on the authority of Anas.

Hakim no.8728 and Dhahabi said the isnad contained a weak narrator. Ibn Abi Shaybah, vol. 13, p.360, has the wording,… ”will not be forgiven,” and ibn al-Mubarak, al-Zuhd no.1324  also records this wording as a statement of Aishah.
12. This sentence is not found in the hadith of Ibn Majah.
13. Ibn Majah no.4245. Busayri said, ’Its isnad is sahih and it was declared sahih by Albani, no. 2346.

The Bitter Consequences of Sins By Imaam Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah

consequences-of-sinsIt is essential to know that sins and acts of disobedience are, necessarily, very harmful. Their harm effects upon the heart are akin to the harmful effects of poison upon the body, though the effects vary in their levels and intensities. So is there any evil or harm in this world, or in the Hereafter, except that it is due to sins and disobedience?

So what was it that expelled the two parents [i.e. Adam and Eve] from Paradise; the home of delight, bliss, splendor and joy; to the home of pain, sorrow and misfortune?

What was it that expelled Iblees [i.e. Satan] from the heavenly realms, causing him to be rejected and cursed; transforming him both inwardly and outwardly, so that his form became ugly and hideous – his inner form more hideous than his outer – replacing his nearness with remoteness, mercy with curse, his beauty with ugliness, from being in Paradise to being in the blazing Fire, from having faith to being an unbeliever, from having the patronage and friendship of Allaah, the Praiseworthy Guardian, to being the greatest enemy and opponent, from glorifying and praising Him to committing acts of unbelief, shirk, lies, deception and shamelessness, from being adorned with faith to being clothed in the garment of unbelief, sinfulness and disobedience, causing him to reach the deepest depths of despicability, plunging down in the sight of Allaah as far as it is possible to plunge; causing the anger of Allaah the Exalted to be upon him, making him an outcast – despised and humiliated – so that he became a leader for every sinner and criminal, becoming pleased with leadership for himself, after having reached the station of worship and nobility?

“O Allaah, we seek refuge in You from opposing Your command and falling into what You have forbidden.”

  • What was it that caused the people of the earth to drown, to the extent that the water rose above even the mountaintops?
  • What was it that caused the violent winds to overcome the people of ‘Aad, such that it flung them down dead upon the face of the earth – as if they were lopped-off palm trunks – and it destroyed whatever dwellings and crops it came across, thus making them an example for nations until the Day of Resurrection?
  • What was it that caused the piercing shrieks to be set loose upon the Thamood people, such that their hearts were severed within their very bodies, by which they all perished?
  • What was it that caused the town of the homosexuals to be raised­ up and turned upside down, such that they were all destroyed? Then stones from the sky pelted down upon them so that they suffered a combined punishment, the like of which was not given to any other nation! And for their brothers will be its like; and it is not far off from the transgressors!
  • What was it that caused the clouds of punishment to overcome the people of Shu’ayb, such that when these clouds were above their heads it rained scorching fire upon them?
  • What was it that caused the Pharaoh and his people to be drowned in the ocean, and caused their souls to be transported to the Hellfire, so their bodies drowned and their souls burned?
  • What was it that caused Qaaroon, his dwelling, wealth and family to sink down into the earth?
  • What was it that caused the destruction of those generations after Noah, and how they were afflicted with various punishments that caused their annihilation?
  • What was it that caused the destruction of the companions of Yaa Seen, with the clamorous shout, which destroyed them?
  • What caused there to be sent against the Children of Israa’eel enemies of great strength and might, plundering their homes, killing their men, enslaving their women and children, burning their dwellings, seizing their wealth, and then returning again a second time, destroying what was rebuilt after the first onslaught?
  • What was it that caused the various types of punishments to be set loose upon the Children of Israa’eel? Killing them, enslaving them, destroying their land and at times causing them to be oppressed by kings, whilst at another time causing them to be transformed into apes and swine – and finally the Lord took an oath that:

“He would certainly keep on sending against them, until the Day of Resurrection, those who will inflict them with a humiliating torment.”

[Soorah al-A’raaf 7:167]

Imam Ahmad said: al-Waleed ibn Muslim related to us; that Safwaan ibn ‘Amr related to us; that ‘Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Jubayr ibn Nufayr related; from his father, who said:

“When Cyprus was conquered and its people were dispersed and they started weeping to each other, I saw Abud-Dardaa sitting alone and weeping. So I said to him: O Abud-Dardaa! What makes you weep on this day that Allaah has granted strength and honor to Islaam and its people? So he said: Woe be to you O Jubayr! How insignificant the creation becomes to Allaah when they turn away from His command. In front of us is a nation who were evidently powerful and who had dominion, yet they abandoned Allaah’s command, so look what has become of them.”

[2] ‘Alee ibn al-Ja’d said: Shu’bah ibn ‘Amr ibn Murrah informed us; I heard Abul-Bukhtaree say:I was informed by someone, who heard the Prophet (sallalalhu alaihi wa-sallam) saying:

“The people will not perish, until they have no excuse left for themselves.”

[3] Imaam Ahmad reports in his Musnad, from the hadeeth of Umm Salamah, who said: I heard Allaah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) saying:

“When acts of disobedience become widespread in my Ummah, then Allaah may send punishment upon them all from Himself” So I said: O’ Allaah’s Messenger! Even if there are righteous people amongst them that day? So he replied: “Indeed!” So I said: How will that be? He replied: “They will be afflicted with what afflicts the people, then they will move on to the forgiveness of Allaah and His good pleasure.” [4]

From the book
Tabseer al-Bashr bi-Tahreem as-Sihar
Translated by
Abbas Abu Yahya


[1] Ad-Daa’ wad-Dawaa’ (pp.65-67).

[2] Reported by Imaam Ahmad in az-Zuhd (i/86) with an authentic (saheeh) chain of narration

[3] Reported by Ahmad (4/260) and Abu Daawood (no.4347) with an authentic chain of narration.

[4] Reported by Ahmad (6/304) and one of its narrators is Layth ibn Abee Sulaym, who is weak. However the hadeeth is established due to further supporting narrations. Consult Silsilatul-Ahaadeethus-Saheehah (no.1372) of Shaykh al-Albaanee

6 rights of every Muslim

Tafseer of the Hadeeth of Six Rights of every Muslim

6-rights-of-muslimAsh-Shaikh ‘Abdur-Rahmaan As-Sa’dee’s explanation of the hadeeth regarding the Muslim’s rights Abu Hurayrah (radhiyallaahu ‘anhu) narrated that the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said, 

“The rights of the Muslim upon the Muslim are six.”
 It was said, “And what are they Oh Messenger of Allaah?” He replied, “When you meet him, give him the greeting of peace, when he invites you, respond to his invitation, when he seeks your advice, advise him, when he sneezes and praises Allaah, supplicate for mercy upon him, when he becomes ills, visit him, and when he dies follow him (i.e. his funeral).” 

This hadeeth was reported by Muslim.These six rights, whoever establishes them in dealing with the Muslims, then his establishing things other than them (from the obligations) are even more important (or necessary). And his doing these things results in him fulfilling these obligations and rights, which contain an abundance of good and tremendous reward from Allaah.


“When you meet him, give him the greeting of peace.” For verily the greeting of peace is a cause of love, which results in producing faith (Al-Eemaan), which results in the person entering the Paradise. This is as Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said,

“By the o­ne in Whose Hand is my soul, you all will not enter into the Paradise until you believe, and you will not believe until you love each other. Shall I not direct you to something that if you do it, you will love each other? Spread the greeting of peace amongst yourselves.”

The greeting of peace is from the virtuous characteristics of Islaam. For verily each of the two people who meet each other supplicates for the other for safety from evils, and mercy, and blessing that brings about every good. And what follows this is a cheerful face and appropriate words of greeting which result in unity and love, and it removes feelings of estrangement and cold disassociation. Thus, giving the greeting of peace is the right of the Muslim, and it is obligatory upon the person who is greeted to return greeting with a similar greeting or o­ne that is better than it. And the best of the people are those who start the greeting of peace first.


“When he invites you, respond to his invitation.” This means that when he invites you with an invitation to some food and drink, then fulfill the request of your brother who has drawn near to you and honored you with the invitation. Respond to his invitation (i.e. accept it), unless you have an excuse.


His statement, “And when he seeks your advice, advise him.” This means that if he seeks consultation with you regarding some action, as to whether he should do it or not, then advise him with that which you would like for yourself. Thus, if the action is something that is beneficial in all aspects, then encourage him to do that, and if it is something harmful, then warn him against it. And if the action contains both benefit and harm, then explain that to him and weigh the benefits against the harms. Likewise, if he consults with you concerning some dealing with someone among the people, or whether he should marry a woman off to someone, or whether he should marry someone, then extend your pure and sincere advice to him, and deal with him from the view point of what you would do for you own self. And avoid deceiving him in any matter of these things. For verily whoever deceives the Muslims, then he is not of them, and indeed he has left off the obligation of being sincere and advising. And this sincerity and advising is absolutely obligatory, however it becomes more emphasized when the person seeks your advice and he requests from you that you give him a beneficial opinion. For this reason the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) specifically mentioned it in this important situation. The explanation of the hadeeth, “The religion is sincerity”, has already been mentioned previously (in this book) in a manner that suffices without us having to repeat the discussion here.


“And when he sneezes and praises Allaah, then pray for mercy upon him.” 
This is due to the fact that sneezing is a favor from Allaah, in the expelling of this congested air that is blocked in certain parts of the body of the human being. Allaah makes it easy for this air to have a passage out where it can exit, and thus the sneezing person feels relief. Thus, the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) legislated that the person praise Allaah for this favor, and he legislated for his (Muslim) brother to say to him, “May Allaah have mercy upon you.” He also commanded the person who sneezed to answer his (Muslim) brother by saying to him, “May Allaah guide you and set right your affairs.” Therefore, whoever does not praise Allaah, then he does not deserve for others to pray for mercy upon him, and in this case he cannot blame anyone except himself. For he is the o­ne who has caused himself to lose the two blessings: the blessing of praising Allaah, and the blessing of his brother’s supplication for him that is a result of the praising.


His statement, “And when he becomes ill, visit him.” Visiting the sick is from the rights of the Muslim, and especially for the person who has a highly stressed and emphasized right upon you, like the relative, and the friend, and so forth. It is from the best of the righteous deeds. And whoever visits his Muslim brother, he remains engulfed in the mercy (of Allaah), and when he sits with him the mercy (of Allaah) covers him. And whoever visits the sick Muslim at the beginning of the day, the Angels send prayers of blessing upon him until evening comes, and whoever visits him at the end of the day, the Angels send prayers of blessing upon him until morning comes. It is desired for the person who visits the sick to supplicate for him to be cured and to make him feel at ease. He should ease his worries by giving him glad tidings of well-being and recovery (i.e. be positive). He should remind him of repentance and turning to Allaah, and he should give him beneficial admonition. He should not sit with him too long (i.e. over staying his welcome), rather he should o­nly sit with him long enough fulfill the right of visiting, unless the sick person is positively effected by many people coming in to see him and many people coming to sit with him. Thus, for each situation there is a different statement (i.e. advice o­n how to deal with it).


His statement, “And if he dies, follow him (his funeral).” For verily whoever follows the funeral until the deceased’s body is prayed over, then he will receive a Qeeraat of reward. (Translator’s note: A Qeeraat is an amount equivalent to the size of the Mountain of Uhud in Madinah.) And if he follows the funeral procession until the body is buried, then he will receive two Qeeraats of reward. And following the funeral procession contains (fulfillment of) a right for Allaah, a right for the deceased, and a right for the living relatives of the deceased.

Ash-Shaikh ‘Abdur-Rahmaan bin Naasir As-Sa`dee (Rahimahullaah)
 Bahjatu Quloob il-Abraar wa Qurratu ‘Uyoon il-Akhyaar fee Jaami’ il-Akhbaar, pp. 65-67, hadeeth no. 29. 

Warning Against the Fitnah of Takfeer

By the Muhadith, Allama, Ash-Shaykh Muhammad Nasir ud-Deen al-Albaani

Translated By Abbas Abu Yahya.

fitnah of takfir mioSo what is the methodology? What is the path?

No doubt that the correct path, which is an exemplary path, is what the Messenger of Allaah – SallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam – used to constantly talk about and remind his companions about in every khutbah:

And the best guidance is the guidance of Muhammed – SallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam .”

So it is upon all the Muslims without exception and specifically those who busy themselves with the return of Islaamic rule, that they begin from where the Messenger of Allaah – SallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam – began. We have labeled this in two concise words:

Purification and Education

Because we know the firmly established reality, which is being neglected or more accurately purposely neglected, by those extremists who do not have anything except that they proclaim Takfeer of the rulers, and then nothing else!!

And they continue to proclaim Takfeer of the rulers then nothing stems from them, or about them, except discord and strife!!

The calamities in these past few years which have been by the hands of these people, beginning from the discord (fitnah) of the Haraam of Makkah to the dissension in Egypt and the killing of Sadaat. Finally, in Syria and now in Egypt and Algeria- a sight that everyone can see; the shedding of the blood of many of the innocent Muslims because of these fitn, tribulations, and the occurrence of many trials and calamities.

All of this because they opposed many of the texts from the Book and the Sunnah and the most important of which is:

{ Indeed in the Messenger of Allaah you have a good example to follow, for him who hopes in the meeting with Allaah and the Last Day and remembers Allaah much. }

If we really want to establish the rule of Allaah on the earth – in reality not just in a claim – then do we start with making Takfeer of the rulers while it is not possible for us to confront them – let alone fighting them – or do we start – with the obligation – the Messenger of Allaah – SallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam – started with?

There is no doubt that the answer is:

{Indeed in the Messenger of Allaah you have a good example to follow……..}

But what did the Messenger of Allaah – SallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam -begin with?

It is known – with certainty – to anyone who has smelt the fragrance of knowledge that he began with the Daw’ah between individuals whom he thought were ready to accept the truth. Then whoever was ready to respond to him, from the individuals of the noble Companions responded to him – as it is well known in the prophetic biography. Then the punishment and the severity befell these Muslims in Makkah. After that came the command for the first migration and the second until Allaah Azza wa Jal consolidated Islaam in al-Madeena al-Munnawara. From there began the skirmishes and the opposition. Also, the fighting between the Muslims and the kuffaar on one side and the Jews from the other.……etc.

Therefore it is necessary for us to begin by teaching the people the true Islaam; like the Messenger – SallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam – had begun. Now we cannot just confine ourselves to teaching alone, because things have entered into Islaam which are not from it, and has no association with Islaam, from the bida’ and innovations which were the reason for the clear downfall of the lofty status of Islaam.

Because of this it is obligatory upon those inviting to Islaam to begin with purification of Islaam from what has entered into it.

The first principle – “Purification”

The second principle – “Education”

The education that is associated with this purification is the education of the young active Muslims on this pure Islaam.

If we study the reality of the Islaamic groups which have existed, for nearly a generation, and their ideas and the practice of these ideas. We would find that many of them have not benefited themselves, nor have they benefited others with anything that can be remembered! Despite their outcry and noise, that they want an Islaamic government!! Which was a reason of spilling blood of the innocent with this baseless argument!! Without them having realised anything from it.

We continue to hear from their beliefs which are opposed to the Book and Sunnah and actions which are negated by the Book and Sunnah, let alone them trying, again and again with futile attempts which oppose the Sharia’.

Finally I say: there is a statement which one of the propagators of Islaam said, which I used to hope that his followers would adhere to it and fulfill it, which is: ‘Establish the Islaamic state in your heart it will be established for you on the earth.’

Because If a Muslim corrects his Aqeedah built upon the Book and Sunnah, then there is no doubt that from this he will correct his worship, correct his behavior and his manners etc.

But, with regret, these fine words have not been acted upon by these people, they persist with an outcry to establish the Islaamic state but without any benefit! and it is said about them – and I swear by Allaah to this – what the poet said is true:

You hope for success and you do not follow its path, Indeed a ship does not sail on dry land.

Perhaps in this what I have mentioned is persuasive enough for every just person, and a termination for every oppressor.

We seek Allaah’s help.

Hafsah bint ‘Umar (RadiyAllaahu ‘Anha)

One day the Angel Jibril told Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) about Hafsah:

“She is an often fasting and worshipping lady and she will be your wife in Paradise too.” [Mustadrak Al-Hakim 4/15]

Hafsah was the daughter of ‘Umar Faruq, and the niece of another famous Sahabi, ‘Uthman bin Maz’un. Her uncle from the paternal side was Zayd bin Khattab. ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar was her brother.

Hafsah was an extremely religious lady who used to spend her time in prayer and fasting. An excellent writer and orator, an ardent follower of Islam.

Hafsah-bint-UmarHafsah had such noble qualities and such an amiable nature that ‘A’ishah remarked that among wives of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) only she could compare with her. Her life is exemplary, brought up as she was by a Companion of the calibre of ‘Umar bin Khattab.

Hafsah was born in the family of a great warrior and wrestler, ‘Umar bin Khattab who was well known for his martial skills. In her growing years she was brought up in an Islamic environment, both her parents and her aunts and uncles having already converted to the new religion. When she was old enough, she was married to Khanis bin Huthafah As-Sahmi. He was influenced by the teaching of Abu Bakr Siddiq and had accepted Islam.

Due to worst cruelty and oppression, Khanis had to migrate to Al-Madinah with his wife. He was welcomed by Rafa’h bin ‘Abdul Munthir and stayed in his house as his guest.

Both Khanis and Hafsah loved the new life in Al-Madinah. Hafsah made special arrangements to memorize the Ayat of the Quran as and when they were revealed. Then she would give deep thought and attention to the meaning and interpretation of the Ayat. Her husband meanwhile was enthusiastically preparing himself for Jihad and improving his martial skills. He was constantly alert to the movements of the enemy and was ever ready to meet them head on.

News came that the Quraysh of Makkah, after making elaborate preparations for a war to wipe out the Muslims, were marching towards Al-Madinah under the leadership of Abu Jahl.

The Muslims under the leadership of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), practically unarmed, reached Badr and set up camp taking control of the only source of water. All they had with them was their strong faith in the Allah.

Khanis bin Huthafah, ‘Umar Faruq and the maternal and paternal uncles of Hafsah and her cousin were all part of this courageous band. Her husband was determined to win the battle for Allah and bring to dust the pomp and grandeur of Abu Jahl’s forces. Finally the forces met and Khanis bin Huthafah went tearing through the ranks of the enemy. He was seriously wounded, but most of the leaders of the disbelievers were killed, and Islam triumphed. It is one of the greatest battles fought in history where a handful of unarmed and outnumbered men routed a powerful and well-equipped army.

When Hafsah heard of her husband’s heroic deeds she was very happy, and praised his valour in battle; but she also realized that in this condition he would need the best care possible. She immediately recited the Ayah of Surat Al-Anfal which were revealed in connection with the Battle of Badr,

“Allah made it only as glad tidings, as that your hearts be at rest therewith. And there is no victory except from Allah. Verily, Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise.” [Noble Quran 8:10]

These Words of the Allah Almighty promising victory inspired her and she happily turned to the task of nursing her husband back to health. But it was not to be, for he was to be blessed with an exalted position. A few days later he succumbed to his injuries and joined the ranks of those who are blessed with eternal life. When the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) heard of his passing away he arranged for him to be buried in Jannatul Baqi, next to the uncle of Hafsah; he personally led the funeral prayers. Hafsah was, naturally, grief stricken, but being a true believer she respectfully submitted to the Will of Allah. She turned towards her Maker and courageously gave herself even more to prayer and meditation. She was at this time barely twenty-one years old.

For her father it was very painful to see his daughter in this state. Her silent courage under these circumstances, her patient prayers and her study of the Quran irradiated her countenance with a spiritual beauty and innocence, but there was also a sadness because of the harsh loneliness that had become part of her life. After deep thought ‘Umar Faruq decided to approach ‘Uthman bin Affan, whose wife Ruqayyah the Prophet’s daughter, had passed away. He thought that sharing a common bond would help to alleviate their sorrow in losing worthy spouses. So, having taken this decision he went direct to ‘Uthman. After the formal greeting and expression of condolences on his wife’s death he broached the topic closest to his heart. ‘Uthman lowered his eyes and then after a few moments pause, he said he needed time to think it over.

‘Umar Faruq met him again after a few days and asked him if he had thought over the proposal. ‘Uthman answered that he was not presently planning on marriage. From there he went to Abu Bakr Siddiq and offered him his daughter in marriage. He too lowered his gaze and did not answer him. Imam Bukhari in his book of Hadith, As-Sahih Al-Bukhari, has given a whole chapter to the topic of an honorable man offering his sister or daughter in marriage.

‘Umar Faruq was very upset because both the men he approached had either avoided or refused marriage to his daughter. He was confident of a willing and joyful acceptance but things turned out otherwise. He was very upset and worried at the turn of events; in a sense it was an affront to him and his position as a sincere defender of the faith. People, he thought, would consider it an honor to have an alliance by marriage with him. With this grievance he went to the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) and explained to him the position he found himself in. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) smilingly answered that he should neither grieve nor worry, and Allah willing he would find a man better than ‘Uthman for Hafsah and ‘Uthman in turn, would find for himself a better woman than Hafsah.

‘Umar Faruq was pleased on hearing this from the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) himself, but also a little perplexed over who such a man could be? A few days later the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) married his daughter, Umm Kulthum to ‘Uthman. ‘Umar Faruq realized that one part of the prediction had come true, but he continued to puzzle over the second half of the statement. Who could possibly be a better man than ‘Uthman? Then the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) proposed marriage to Hafsah. ‘Umar Faruq could not believe his ears; his daughter would have the honor of joining the select band of women who were known as the Mothers of the believers! ‘A’ishah and Sawdah were already part of the Prophet’s household. It seemed too good to be true. Thus Hafsah was joined in marriage to the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) in the 3rd year after Hijrah, before the Battle of Uhud. She was about twenty-two years old at the time. On seeing off his daughter to her husband’s house, ‘Umar Faruq told her that she should never try to compete with ‘A’ishah, who was the Prophet’s favorite and better than her in many respects. He said she should respect her sincerely and live happily as a member of the first and foremost family.

Sa’id bin Al-Musayyab, a learned scholar, states that the Prophet’s prediction that he was a better husband for Hafsah than ‘Uthman was proved right, as was his statement that Umm Kulthum was a better wife for ‘Uthman than Hafsah. After the marriage Abu Bakr Siddiq met with ‘Umar Faruq and told him the truth, which was that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) had mentioned to him that he planned to marry Hafsah. That was the reason he had remained silent, as it would not have been proper to betray his confidence. If matters were different he would have been only too happy to accept her hand in marriage. ‘Umar Faruq expressed his happiness by quoting the following Ayah,

“This is by the Grace of my Lord – to test me whether I am grateful or ungrateful! And whoever is grateful, truly, his gratitude is for himself; and whoever is ungrateful, (it is for the loss of only himself). Certainly my Lord is Rich, Bountiful.” [Noble Quran 27:40]

After attaining the position of the Mother of the Believers, Hafsah became even more absorbed in studying the finer points of religion. She would store in her mind conversations of Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) which would lead to a better understanding of Islam. Often she would discuss any points that arose in her mind about the Shari’ah.

Jabir bin ‘Abdullah Ansari narrates an incident which was related to him by Umm Mubasher. She and Hafsah and the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) were sitting and chatting together. He said that all the people who had given the pledged of allegiance at Hudaybiyah under the tree would go to Paradise, and not to Hell. She asked how that was possible. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) got annoyed, but Hafsah did not give up and quoted an Ayah from Surah Maryam.

“There is not one of you but will pass over it (Hell).” [Noble Quran 19:71]

In reply he quoted the very next Ayah, also from Surah Maryam.

“Then We shall save those who use to fear Allah and were dutiful to Him. And We shall leave the wrongdoers therein to there knees (in Hell).” [Noble Quran 19:72]

This news of Hafsah disputing with the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) spread in Al-Madinah. On that day the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) was very disturbed; and when ‘Umar Faruq heard about it he chided his daughter. She replied that ‘A’ishah too spoke in the same manner to him. Her father again cautioned her not to compete with ‘A’ishah and maintain a certain decorum, or else she would bring trouble on herself.

Among the Mothers of the believers, ‘A’ishah, Umm Habibah, Sawdah and Hafsah all belonged to the tribe of Quraysh. The others came from various other tribes. Everyday after the ‘Asr prayer, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) would visit them all for a little while to see if they needed anything; the time of the visits was routine and each would wait eagerly for his arrival. On several occasions, it so happened that he spent more time with Zaynab. This upset ‘A’ishah, and she spoke about it to Hafsah and Sawdah. They got together and found out that a certain relative had sent Zaynab a special kind of honey and she used to offer it to the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) everyday. This was his favorite and he used to be delayed in her apartment, enjoying it. ‘A’ishah was so fond of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) that she could not bear for him to be late coming to her apartment. Because of her regard for him she could not object directly.

So she consulted Hafsah and Sawdah, and they decided that when he comes to each of us by turn, we would all say that there is a strange smell emanating from his mouth. When he heard the same thing from all three of them, he believed it must be due to the honey he had, and decided to give it up for good. If this had been an incident in the life of an ordinary person it would have been of no consequence. But this was with the last Prophet of Allah and his every word and every action would become the law or Shari’ah for all Muslims for all time to come. Thus it had a special significance.

So Allah rebuked him in Ayah of Surat At-Tahrim.

“O Prophet! Why do you forbid (for yourself) that which Allah has allowed to you, seeking to please your wives? And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” [Noble Quran 66:1]

It was around the same time that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) confided a secret matter to Hafsah, and warned her not to speak to anyone about it. But she told ‘A’ishah. Allah then revealed to the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) what happened. Allah revealed this in the following Ayah of Surat At-Tahrim,

“And when the Prophet disclosed a matter in confidence to one of his wife, then she told it. And Allah made it known to him; he informed part thereof and left a part. Then when he told her thereof, she said: “Who told you this?” He said: “The All-Knower, the All-Aware has told me.” [Noble Quran 66:3]

The year, when the Peninsula was under the Islamic government, the granaries were full and all the riches were reaching the centre from the different regions of Arabia; many of the wives of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), who lived lives of luxury, put forward demands for an increase in their household allowances. When ‘Umar Faruq heard of this he was very upset; he told his daughter Hafsah that she should ask her father if she needed anything and not make any demands on the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him). He also advised all the Mothers of the Believers not to make any demands. Umm Salamah did not quite like this and felt that he had the habit of interfering in every matter. She told him frankly that he should refrain from meddling in the affairs of the Prophet’s wives.

It was at this time that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) had fallen from his horse and been injured; keeping all these things in view he decided to go into seclusion and moved to an upper room adjacent to the apartment of ‘A’ishah. The whole city was buzzing with the gossip the hypocrites spread saying that he divorced his wives. But actually no such thing happened. All the Companions were disturbed by this situation, but no one had the courage to approach the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) and talk to him directly. Finally ‘Umar Faruq known for his forthrightness went to him and asked him if the rumor was true. When he denied it he was delighted. Then he asked if he could announce this good news to the rest of the Muslims. When he received permission, he joyfully informed the community that everything was fine with the Prophet’s household. The whole city was relieved that the Messenger of Allah had not been offended in any way. On the twenty-ninth day he came down into the apartment of ‘A’ishah. She asked him smilingly why he came down before the month was over. He replied that often the lunar month did consist of only twenty-nine days. Hafsah promised her father that she would never ever ask for a raise in her allowance and she stood by her word to the end of her life.

Hafsah died in the year 41st after Hijrah aged fifty-nine. At the time of death she was fasting. The funeral prayers were led by the governor of Al-Madinah, Marwan bin Al-Hakam. Abu Hurairah and Abu Sa’id Khudri, the eminent Companion of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) were among those who carried the shroud to Jannatul Baqi’. Her two brothers, ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar and ‘Asim bin ‘Umar placed her gently into her final resting place. Salem bin ‘Abdullah, ‘Abdur-Rahman bin ‘Abdullah and Hamzah bin ‘Abdullah, all the sons of ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar also attended the funeral.

And so a righteous and learned writer and reciter of the Noble Quran who devoted herself from her youth to prayer, fasting and meditation passed into history.

These Ayat from Surat Al-Qamar express an apt tribute to this great Mother of the Believers.

“Verily, the pious will be in the midst of Graders and Rivers (Paradise). In a seat of truth, near the Omnipotent King.” [Noble Quran 54:54-55]

Source: “Great Women of Islam” – by Dar-us-Salam Publications

Those Who Will Be Excused For Not Knowing: Shaykh Abdul-Aziz bin Baaz

Shaykh Abdul-Aziz bin Baaz rahimahullaah
Kitaab Majmoo’ Fataawa wa Maqaalaat Mutnawwi’ah li Samaahat vol. 7, p. 132

Shaykh ‘Abdul-Aziz bin Baaz rahimahullaah was asked ‘Who are the ones who will be excused for ignorance about ‘aqeedah and matters of fiqh?’, to which he replied:

ibn-bazPraise be to Allâh.

Claiming that one is ignorant or using this as an excuse is a matter which needs further discussion. Not everyone can be excused for his ignorance. With regard to the things which were brought by Islâm, which the Messenger  (peace and blessings of Allâh be upon him) explained and which were made clear in the Book of Allâh and are widely known among the Muslims, no claim of ignorance will be accepted in these cases, especially in matters with have to do with ‘aqeedah and the basics of religion.

Allâh sent His Prophet  (peace and blessings of Allâh be upon him) to teach the people their religion and explain it to them, and he conveyed the message clearly and explained to the ummah the truths of their religion. He explained everything and left them with a clear path which is always obvious. In the Book of Allâh there is guidance and light. If some people claim to be ignorant about things which are known to be essential parts of the religion and which are well known among the Muslims, such as claiming to be ignorant about shirk and worshipping anything other than Allâh, or claiming that salaah is not obligatory, or that fasting Ramadaan is not obligatory, or that paying zakaah is not obligatory, or that doing Hajj when one is able to is not obligatory – in these and similar matters, claims of ignorance are unacceptable from those who live among the Muslims, because they are matters which are well known among the Muslims. They are known to be essential parts of the Muslim religion and are widely known among the Muslims, so the claim of ignorance of these matters is unacceptable.

This is the case if a person were to claim that he does not know that what the mushrikeen do at the graves or idols is wrong, when they call upon the dead, seek their help, offer sacrifices to them and make vows to them, or offer sacrifices to the idols, stars, trees or rocks; or seek healing or help against their enemies from the dead or idols or jinn or angels or Prophets. All of these are things which are known essentially in the religion that they are major shirk (al-shirk al-akbar).

Allâh explained this clearly in His Book, and His Messenger  (peace and blessings of Allâh be upon him) explained it clearly. He remained in Makkah for thirteen years warning the people against this shirk, and he preached the same message in Madeenah for ten years, explaining to them that it is obligatory for their worship to be purely and sincerely for Allâh Alone, and reciting to them the Book of Allâh, such as the verses (interpretation of the meaning):

“And your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him” [al-Israa’ 17:23]

“You (Alone) we worship, and You (Alone) we ask for help (for each and everything).” [al-Fâtihah 1:5]

“And they were commanded not, but that they should worship Allâh, and worship none but Him Alone (abstaining from ascribing partners to Him).” [al-Bayyinah 98:5]

“So worship Allâh (Alone) by doing religious deeds sincerely for Allaah’s sake only. Surely, the religion (i.e. the worship and the obedience) is for Allâh only.” [al-Zumar 39:2-3]

“Say (O Muhammad): ‘Verily, my Salaah (prayer), my sacrifice, my living, and my dying are for Allâh, the Lord of the ‘Aalameen (mankind, jinn and all that exists). He has no partner. And of this I have been commanded, and I am the first of the Muslims.'” [al-An’aam 6:162-163]

And Allâh says, addressing His Messenger  (peace and blessings of Allâh be upon him) (interpretation of the meaning):

“Verily, We have granted you (O Muhammad) Al-Kawthar (a river in Paradise). Therefore turn in prayer to your Lord and sacrifice (to Him only).” [al-Kawthar 108:1-2]

“And the mosques are for Allâh (Alone), so invoke not anyone along with Allâh” [al-Jinn 72:18]

“And whoever invokes (or worships), besides Allâh, any other ilaah (god), of whom he has no proof; then his reckoning is only with his Lord. Surely, Al-Kaafiroon (the disbelievers in Allâh and in the Oneness of Allâh, polytheists, pagans, idolaters) will not be successful” [al-Mu’minoon 23:117]

The same applies in the case of those who make fun of the religion, attack it, mock it and insult it – all of these are forms of major kufr and are things for which none may be excused on the grounds of ignorance, because it is well known in the religion that insulting the religion or insulting the Messenger  (peace and blessings of Allâh be upon him) are forms of major kufr, as is making fun of the religion or mocking it. Allâh says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Say: ‘Was it at Allâh, and His Ayaat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) and His Messenger that you were mocking?’ Make no excuse; you disbelieved after you had believed” [al-Tawbah 9:65-66]

It is obligatory for the scholars in every place to spread this knowledge among the people and to make it known so that the common folk will have no excuse and so that this important knowledge will become widespread among them; and so that they will give up their attachment to the dead and seeking help from them whether that is in Egypt, Syria, Iraq or in Madeenah at the grave of the Prophet  (peace and blessings of Allâh be upon him), or in Makkah or anywhere else; and so that the pilgrims and the people will be aware, and will know the laws and religion of Allâh. The silence of the scholars is one of the reasons for the loss and ignorance of the common folk. The scholars, wherever they are, must convey to the people the religion of Allâh and teach them about the unity of Allâh (Tawheed) and the kinds of shirk, so that they will give up shirk out of understanding and so that they will worship Allâh Alone with understanding. Similarly, they must speak out against the things that happen at the grave of al-Badawi, the grave of al-Husayn (may Allâh be pleased with him), or at the grave of Shaykh ‘Abd al-Qaadir al-Jeelani or at the grave of the Prophet  (peace and blessings of Allâh be upon him) in Madeenah and at other graves. The people must know that worship is due to Allâh alone, and no one else has any right to it, as Allâh says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And they were commanded not, but that they should worship Allâh, and worship none but Him Alone (abstaining from ascribing partners to Him).” [al-Bayyinah 98:5]

“So worship Allâh (Alone) by doing religious deeds sincerely for Allaah’s sake only. Surely, the religion (i.e. the worship and the obedience) is for Allâh only.” [al-Zumar 39:2-3]

“And your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him.” [al-Israa’ 17:23]

i.e., your Lord has commanded. So the duty of the scholars throughout the Muslim world and in the areas where there are Muslim minorities and in every place is to teach the people about the unity of Allâh (Tawheed) and to educate them about the meaning of worshipping Allâh, and to warn them against associating anything with Allâh (shirk), which is the greatest of sins. Allâh has created the two races (of mankind and the jinn) to worship Him, and He has commanded them to do that, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And I (Allâh) created not the jinn and mankind except that they should worship Me (Alone)” [al-Dhaariyaat 51:56]

Worship means obeying Him and obeying His Messenger  (peace and blessings of Allâh be upon him), devoting worship sincerely and purely to Him, and focusing one’s heart on Him. Allâh says (interpretation of the meaning):

“O mankind! Worship your Lord (Allâh), Who created you and those who were before you so that you may become Al-Muttaqûn (the pious)” [al-Baqarah 2:21]

With regard to matters which may be unclear, such as some transactions and some matters of prayer and fasting, the one who is ignorant of them may be excused, as the Prophet  (peace and blessings of Allâh be upon him) excused the man who entered ihraam dressed in a cloak and wearing perfume. The Prophet  (peace and blessings of Allâh be upon him) said to him, “Take off the cloak and wash off the perfume, and do in your ‘umrah what you do in your Hajj.” He did not tell him to pay a penalty (fidyah) for his ignorance. By the same token, some matters which may be unclear should be taught to the one who is ignorant so that he will come to understand them. But as far as the basics of ‘aqeedah, the pillars of Islâm, and things which are clearly haraam are concerned, claims of ignorance cannot be accepted from anyone who lives among the Muslims. If anyone who lives among the Muslims were to say, “I did not know that zinaa is haraam”, this is no excuse. If he were to say, “I did not know that disobeying my parents is haraam,” this is no excuse; rather he should be beaten and disciplined. Or if he were to say, “I did not know that homosexuality is haraam,” this is no excuse. These are matters which are clear and are well known among the Muslims and in Islâm.

But if he lived in a land far away from the Muslim world or in a remote part of Africa where there are no Muslims around him, then the claim of ignorance may be accepted from him, and if he dies in that state his case will rest with Allâh; he will come under the same ruling as those who lived during the fatrah (time between two Prophets). The correct view is that they will be tested on the Day of Resurrection: if they respond and obey they will enter Paradise, and if they disobey they will enter Hell. But the one who lived among the Muslims but did actions of kufr and neglected the well known obligations, has no excuse, because the matter is clear and there are Muslims around him, who fast and perform Hajj. All of this is well known and widespread among the Muslims, so the claim of ignorance in this case is a false claim. And Allâh is the One Whose help we seek.

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